Indicators of Self-Determination in Wisconsin using National Core Indicators Data

Purpose and Method


The purpose of this report is to highlight indicators of self-determination, including participating in self-directed services, having a guardian, and choice-making, for adults with IDD in Wisconsin who receive Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS), compared to regional and national trends.


We used the 2017-18 National Core Indicators-In-Person Survey (NCI-IPS) data for the analyses. States were divided into three categories for the analyses: Wisconsin alone, region (Illinois, Michigan, and Minnesota), and all remaining participating U.S. states. Thirty-five states and the District of Columbia participated in the survey. Statistical analyses were conducted via SPSS including basic descriptive analysis and both linear (for continuous outcomes of choice on a scale from 0 to 2) and logistic (for the binary – yes/no - outcome of self-direction) regression.

The NCI-IPS items used in this study came from the Background Information Section of the survey (individual-level variables, including a self-directed option and guardianship, used as predictors/covariates) and Section II (choice items). Thus, the analyses here included some proxy responses. While obtaining information about choice from the individuals themselves may be ideal, previous studies have found strong and significant correlations between participant and proxy answers provided to a choice questionnaire similar to the one used here (Perry & Felce, 2002; Stancliffe & Parmenter, 1999).

Research questions included:

  • What are the variables associated with taking part in a self-directed funding program (age, level of ID, gender, guardianship, etc.)?
  • To what extent does being on self-directed funding predict making every-day and support-related choices?
  • Are there statistical differences between the levels of self-directed funding, guardianship, and every-day and support-related choice between WI, region, and nationally (by level of ID, age and gender)?