Accommodations Toolkit

Braille: States' Accessibility Policies, 2020

National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO)

This summary of states’ accessibility policies for braille is part of the Accommodations Toolkit published by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO).[1] The toolkit also contains a summary of the research literature on braille.

Accessibility policies often have several tiers of accessibility features: universal features, designated features, and accommodations.[2] Figure 1 summarizes how states included braille in their accessibility policies for students with disabilities in 2020. Table 1 shows how braille was included in the policies, while Table 2 contains additional details and specifications.

Figure 1. States’ Accessibility Policies for Braille, 2020

Reading/ELA/Writing

  • Universal Features (U): 0 States
  • Designated Features (D): 2 States
  • Accommodations (A): 46 States

Math

  • Universal Features (U): 0 States
  • Designated Features (D): 2 States
  • Accommodations (A): 46 States

Science

  • Universal Features (U): 0 States
  • Designated Features (D): 2 States
  • Accommodations (A): 40 States

Table 1. Accommodations Policies for Braille by State, 2020

U = Universal Feature, D = Designated Feature, A = Accommodation, ELA = English Language Arts, X = Allowed, SD = Allowed for Students with Disabilities, Blank cell = no policy found, N = Notes in Table 2

State

Reading/ELA/Writing

Math

Science

Notes

(See Table 2)

U

D

A

U

D

A

U

D

A

Alabama

SD

SD

SD

N

Alaska

SD

SD

SD

N

Arizona

SD

SD

SD

N

Arkansas

SD

SD

SD

N

California

SD

SD

SD

N

Colorado

SD

SD

SD

N

Connecticut

SD

SD

SD

N

Delaware

SD

SD

SD

N

District of Columbia

SD

SD

N

Florida

SD

SD

SD

N

Georgia

SD

SD

Hawaii

SD

SD

SD

N

Idaho

SD

SD

N

Illinois

SD

SD

N

Indiana

SD

SD

SD

Iowa

SD

SD

SD

N

Kansas

SD

SD

SD

Kentucky

Louisiana

SD

SD

SD

Maine

Maryland

SD

SD

SD

N

Massachusetts

SD

SD

SD

Michigan

SD

SD

SD

N

Minnesota

SD

SD

SD

N

Mississippi

SD

SD

SD

Missouri

SD

SD

SD

Montana

SD

SD

SD

N

Nebraska

SD

SD

SD

Nevada

SD

SD

N

New Hampshire

X

X

X

N

New Jersey

New Mexico

SD

SD

SD

New York

SD

SD

SD

North Carolina

SD

SD

SD

N

North Dakota

SD

SD

SD

N

Ohio

SD

SD

SD

N

Oklahoma

SD

SD

SD

N

Oregon

SD

SD

SD

N

Pennsylvania

SD

SD

SD

N

Rhode Island

SD

SD

SD

N

South Carolina

SD

SD

SD

N

South Dakota

SD

SD

SD

N

Tennessee

SD

SD

SD

Texas

X

X

X

N

Utah

SD

SD

SD

N

Vermont

SD

SD

SD

N

Virginia

SD

SD

SD

N

Washington

SD

SD

N

West Virginia

SD

SD

SD

N

Wisconsin

SD

SD

SD

N

Wyoming

SD

SD

SD

N

Total

0

2

46

0

2

46

0

2

40

Table 2. Details and Specifications: States' Braille Accessibility Policies

State

Details/Specifications

Alabama

Considerations/Constraints:

  • A Proctor is required in addition to the Test Administrator.
  • A Scribe is required for students who will be verbally responding.
  • The Scribe may act as the Proctor.
  • A paper copy of the braille version of the test will be available at each grade level and for each content area assessment.
  • The Test Administrator or Scribe must be proficient in reading braille.

This accommodation is untimed.

Alaska

Students may require Braille version of the paper-based assessment. Available in UEB for ELA, math, and science.

Arizona

Braille Test Booklet – Provide a paper Braille test booklet. Also requires Adult Transcription into the Data Entry Interface (DEI).

Arkansas

Requires ADE: DESE Office of Student Assessment approval for Summative testing when paired with additional supports other than Dictate Responses to a Scribe.

Personal Needs Profile Selection:

  • Braille Contracted, American Edition (EBAE)
  • Braille Contracted, Unified English (UEB)

Notes: It is important that the test coordinator provide the correct braille format for the examinee. Transcription of responses in braille must be translated and transcribed to be scored, entered exactly as provided by the examinee. For Periodic testing, when using braille, responses must be entered in TestNav to be scored. Braille materials can be ordered as an additional order, requiring time for shipment of materials. Examinees authorized for braille should be provided triple time.

California

This resource is a raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform), called tactile graphics. Contracted and non-contracted braille is available; Nemeth and UEB Technical code(s) are available for math. The embedded resource is both embossed and refreshable.

To request the CAST tactile package, or the braille hybrid adaptive test for math, email CalTAC at caltac@ets.org.

Paper-pencil tests are available if students cannot access the needed assistive technology for refreshable braille presentation and embossers for the administration of the computer-based CAASPP or ELPAC tests.

Because the CAAs are administered in a one-on-one setting, this resource is not applicable to the CAAs. In addition, this resource is not available on the Alternate ELPAC as an embedded resource.

Colorado

Available only to students with an IEP or 504 plan with a documented diagnosis of blindness/visual impairment. Determine appropriateness for use of this accommodation with a teacher certified in the area of visual impairments.

Only a teacher of the visually impaired (TVI) proficient in reading the braille code used by the student may administer this assessment. This accommodation is typically administered in an individual assessment environment.

Note: For math, science and social studies, while it is anticipated that most students are able to complete testing session within the standard testing time, due to the nature of the test administration and the need to for the student to respond in the manner the student uses instructionally, the testing session may take additional time.

Computer-based tests:

Math and ELA ONLY: A student who is blind or has a visual impairment takes the assessment using his/her preferred screen reader software (e.g., JAWS 15), pending a trial using the math and/or ELA Assistive Technology practice forms (securely delivered through the PA-next Training site) with the student’s assistive technology device or software.

This online accommodated form reads information on the screen using screen reader software for ELA and math only. If the student is not using headphones, the student must test in a separate one-on-one setting.

Note: A student who uses screen reader may also need tactile graphics. The science and social studies computer-based assessment is not compatible with screen reader software. It is recommended the Test Administrator/TVI order the Braille kit (see Paper-based Assessment information below).

Special CBT Form Assignment Required for Math and ELA:

  • Field = Test Format
    • Expected Value = O = Online
  • Field = Assistive Technology
    • Expected Value = Y = Yes

Paper-based tests:

Test Administrators/TVIs may have access to the Teacher Notes (included in the braille kit) 24 hours prior to the administration of the assessment to ensure all needed materials are procured. Early access to other assessment materials is not allowed other than to verify the correct grade and content area materials were received by reviewing the test book cover only.

Test Administrators will transcribe student work demonstrated using tactile tools, such as an abacus or alternate graphing, into the regular print test book included in the braille kit. Test Administrators may assist in placement of a straight edge, or other tools needed, as requested by the student.

The student may record his/her answers directly on the adapted format book, on blank braille paper, or use a brailler or braille note-taker. The student’s responses must be transcribed by a TVI into the regular print test book (included in the braille kit) to be submitted for scoring. Student work and/or answers not transcribed will not be scored. See 6.1.6 Transcription Instructions.

Special PBT Form Assignment Required:

  • Field = Test Format
    • Expected Value = P = Paper
  • Field = Visual Accommodations
    • Expected Value = 01 = UEB/Unified English Braille with Nemeth
    • Expected Value = 02 = UEB Technical (math and science only)

Brailler/Braille Note-taker:

Available only to students with an IEP or 504 plan with a documented diagnosis of blindness/visual impairment. Determine appropriateness for use of this accommodation with a teacher certified in the area of visual impairments (TVI). Only a TVI proficient in reading the braille code used by the student can provide this accommodation.

Administration must take place in an individual testing environment with adequate space for all materials, including the braille test book, the braille source book (social studies only), and brailler/braille note-taker.

Only authorized personnel may have access to the test, test materials, and student answers. Any pages (braille paper, brailler produced, or printed from a braille note-taker) containing the student’s answers are secure materials and must be returned to the SAC along with any used scratch paper from the test unit.

Paper-based: The student may record his/her answers directly on the adapted format book, on blank braille paper, or use a brailler or braille note-taker. The TVI completes verbatim transcription of the student’s responses into the regular test book (included in the braille kit) in the presence of a second school adult. Student work and/or answers that are not transcribed are not scored.

Connecticut

Access to braille, in conjunction with other technologies, is available through the online Test Delivery System when Permissive mode is set to YES in the student’s Test Settings in TIDE. Technology, such as refreshable braille devices or the use of a braille embosser, is available on the Smarter Balanced and NGSS Assessments for students who use them. View this video for more information on using braille as an embedded accommodation. Refreshable braille is an electronic device that displays text in braille by means of movable “pins” that form braille letters and words. The display may contain anywhere between 12 and 80 braille cells that will be read tactually, then the next line of braille will appear. Braille Embosser provides the graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) in a raised format (paper or thermoform).

Delaware

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Nemeth Code is available for Math.

Codes available on paper/pencil:

ELA

  • EBAE contracted and uncontracted; UEB contracted and uncontracted

Mathematics

  • EBAE contracted and uncontracted with Nemeth; UEB contracted and uncontracted with Nemeth

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in ART, or member’s comparable platform. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional time. Refreshable braille is available only for ELA. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or noncontracted) is set in TIDE. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Students can take the test on a contracted Braille version of the paper form. UEB with Nemeth and UEB Technical are available for DeSSA Science, and UEB is produced for DeSSA Social Studies.

District of Columbia

Hard-Copy Braille Edition: The Braille Edition accommodation is intended for students who are blind or visually impaired. A student who is unable to take the computer-based test with a refreshable braille display (or where refreshable display is not available) may take the assessment using a hard-copy braille edition. Tactile graphics will also be embedded in the hard copy braille edition assessments, when needed. This accommodation is available in-person only.

MSAA Only: Intended for students who are blind or visually impaired. LEAs should inform OSSE about the number of braille copies needed. MSAA forms are available in United English Braille (UEB).

Braille with Tactile Graphics (BR): May be used to provide access to the assessment for a braille-proficient EL who is blind. Only available for paper-based administration.

Braille Note-Taker and Braille Writer: A student who is blind or has a visual impairment may use a braille writer or an electronic braille note-taker. If these tools are not available, the student may use a human scribe.

Florida

Math/Science: For Mathematics and NGSSS Science assessments, UEB is available in both UEB with Nemeth and UEB Technical.

Students who use braille materials will record their responses on braille paper. The contractor will transcribe the student’s responses from the braille paper into the regular print document. School/district personnel must apply a PreID label and ensure that information on the front of each student’s regular print document has been filled in accurately and completely before placing it, along with the braille book and answer sheets, in the student’s Special Document Return Envelope.

If a student using braille materials provides verbal or signed responses, you will record the student’s responses in the regular print test and answer book (or regular print answer document for Grades 5 & 8 Science) provided for the student. Include the student’s braille test materials and the regular print document containing his or her responses in the student’s Special Document Return Envelope(s).

If a student is using multiple learning media (e.g., a student uses braille materials and records his or her responses in a large print test and answer book), make sure that the student’s responses are in one answer document type. Place the document containing the student’s responses and the studentʼs regular print document in the student’s Special Document Return Envelope(s) according to the return instructions for that document type.

Hawaii

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Contracted and non-contracted braille is available; Nemeth and UEB Technical code(s) are available for math.

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. Due to limitations with refreshable braille technology and math braille codes, refreshable braille is available only for ELA. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Students who are blind and who prefer to use braille should have access to either screen reader support with refreshable braille (only for ELA) or screen reader support with on-site embosser-created braille (for ELA or math). Students who are blind may also take a paper-pencil form of the assessment in braille. Various braille codes are offered for both online and paper-pencil braille.

ELA listening passages:

A braille transcript of the closed captioning created for the listening passages. The braille transcripts are available in the following braille codes:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Students may have difficulty hearing the listening portion of the passage and also do not have enough functional vision to read the closed captioning provided for the passage. These students who are visually impaired or blind and deaf or hard of hearing AND who use braille may have access to Braille Transcripts. These students must be registered in the test registration tool for both braille and closed captioning. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Paper-based:

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Codes available on paper-pencil:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Mathematics

  • EBAE uncontracted with Nemeth

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Idaho

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Contracted and non-contracted braille is available; Nemeth and UEB Technical code(s) are available for math.

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. Due to limitations with refreshable braille technology and math braille codes, refreshable braille is available only for ELA. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Students who are blind and who prefer to use braille should have access to either screen reader support with refreshable braille (only for ELA) or screen reader support with on-site embosser-created braille (for ELA or math). Students who are blind may also take a paper-pencil form of the assessment in braille. Various braille codes are offered for both online and paper-pencil braille.

ELA listening passages:

A braille transcript of the closed captioning created for the listening passages. The braille transcripts are available in the following braille codes:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Students may have difficulty hearing the listening portion of the passage and also do not have enough functional vision to read the closed captioning provided for the passage. These students who are visually impaired or blind and deaf or hard of hearing AND who use braille may have access to Braille Transcripts. These students must be registered in the test registration tool for both braille and closed captioning. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Paper-based:

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Codes available on paper-pencil:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Mathematics

  • EBAE uncontracted with Nemeth

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Illinois

Refreshable Braille Display with Screen Reader Version for ELA/Literacy: A student who is blind or has a visual impairment takes the ELA/literacy assessments using his or her preferred screen reader software, pending an Infrastructure Trial, with a refreshable braille display. A student who uses a screen reader with refreshable braille will also need a tactile graphics booklet, which contains only the graphics portion of test questions and visual descriptions of pictures and multimedia where applicable. If the student is not using headphones, the student must be tested in a separate setting.

Hard Copy Braille Edition: A student who is blind or has a visual impairment and is unable to take the computer-based test with a refreshable braille display may take the ELA/literacy and mathematics assessments using the hard-copy contracted braille edition. Tactile graphics are already embedded in the hard copy braille edition. For students using braille forms, the Test Administrator directions for filling in a circle, making marks, and erasing do not apply. Students should number their responses to be sure that their answers can be transcribed accurately into a scorable test booklet or answer document.

Braille Note-Taker: A student who is blind or has a visual impairment may use an electronic braille note-taker. The grammar checker, internet, and stored file functionalities must be turned off. For students using braille forms, the Test Administrator directions for filling in a circle, making marks, and erasing do not apply. Students should number their responses to be sure that their answers can be transcribed accurately into a scorable test booklet, answer document, or TestNav.

Braille Writer: A student who is blind or has a visual impairment may use a braille writer. For Illinois Assessment of Readiness, grammar checker, internet, and stored file functionalities must be turned off. For students using braille forms, the Test Administrator directions for filling in a circle, making marks, and erasing do not apply. Students should number their responses to be sure that their answers can be transcribed accurately into a scorable test booklet, answer document, or TestNav.

Iowa

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper, thermoform, or refreshable braille). Both contracted and uncontracted Unified English Braille are available for Literacy. Nemeth within UEB contexts for math and science.

Students who are blind or have low vision may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Braille writer or note-taker: A blind student uses a braille writer or notetaker with the grammar checker, internet, and file-storing functions turned off. Students should number their responses to be sure that their answers can be transcribed accurately into a scorable test booklet or answer document.

Maryland

Refreshable Braille Display: Refreshable Braille displays are primarily used by blind students. Refreshable Braille displays provide access to information on a computer screen by electronically raising and lowering different combination of pins in Braille cells. A student who is blind or visually impaired generally uses a Refreshable Braille display in conjunction with his or her preferred Screen Reader software.

Hard Copy Braille Edition: Braille is a system of raised dots that are read with the fingers. Unified English Braille (UEB) consists of literary braille (the alphabet, contractions, signs unique to braille, and formatting), computer notation, math and science, music and linguistics. The United States also utilizes the Nemeth Code for Mathematics and Science. Braille is written with a manual or electric braillewriter, slate and stylus, or electronic braille note-taker. Braille embossers are braille printers that emboss braille after it has been correctly translated and formatted on a computer with braille translation software. For this accommodation, braille is typically produced in a hardcopy, paper format.

Braille Note-taker: Electronic braille note-takers can be used as a portable word processor. They usually have a braille keyboard for input and speech output. Many also have the option of output via a refreshable braille display. In addition to word processing, they may have options for spreadsheets, calendar functions, email, and Internet access. Files can be printed in regular print by connecting to a regular printer or in braille via a braille embosser. The accommodation is written with a specific focus on students with visual impairments or blindness.

Braille Writer: A braillewriter is a device for writing braille. It can include a manual or electronic braillewriter or a slate and stylus. The device prints in braille and does not have the option of editing or saving files.

Michigan

  • The use of a braillewriter is permissible. If a student uses a braillewriter as an assessment Accommodation, a Test Administrator, proctor, or accommodations provider must transcribe the student’s responses onto a regular answer document that is returned along with other secure, scorable materials. Spelling, punctuation, and indentation must be transcribed exactly as it appears in the student’s original response.
  • Each braille version of a content-area M-STEP test will be a unique test form (Form 88).
  • Each grade-level/content-area braille accommodated kit will include a companion Assessment Administrator Booklet for Braille (AABB). This booklet is provided so Test Administrators/accommodations providers can see how the original test items were modified for the student. It also allows them to follow along with the student, even if they do not read braille.
  • A Print-to-Braille Correspondence document is available on the M-STEP web page (www.michigan.gov/mstep).
  • If students use a braille version of the test or a braillewriter, it is important that “Form 88” is bubbled on their answer document.
  • The answer document to be used for braille is included in the braille kit.
  • Make sure a barcode label is affixed to the front of the student’s transcribed answer document where indicated.

Minnesota

Braille or other notetaking device may be used by students competent in their use as determined by the IEP or 504 plan team. Student responses must be entered online by district staff within the testing window. Refer to Entering Student Responses Online in this chapter for further information. Use of audio features on a note-taking device is allowable if the IEP or 504 plan specifies it. The device must be used in an individual setting to play back text the student has entered. The Test Monitor is responsible for monitoring that the student is using the audio feature only to enter and play back notes, and not for any portion of the passage or test items. Any notes must be deleted following each test session.

A Braille version of the test book is available to a student who is blind or partially sighted and is competent in the braille system, as determined by the IEP or 504 plan team. Unified English Braille (UEB) format for braille test materials is used. Separate codes have been added to Pretest Editing for contracted (BC) and uncontracted (BU) braille test books. The applicable braille test book will be automatically shipped if the code is indicated in Pretest Editing by Jan. 17; after this date, it must be ordered as an additional order on PearsonAccess Next.

Note: Each year, the code will default to the BC code; districts must change the code to BU if a student requires uncontracted materials. Test Monitor Notes for Braille are provided along with the braille test books for the Test Monitor to reference during test administration. Under the supervision of the District or School Assessment Coordinator, a Test Monitor administering a braille test may access the Test Monitor Notes for Braille and the corresponding test books up to 5 business days prior to the scheduled administration. This time has been extended to allow Test Monitors sufficient preparation time prior to administration. Materials must be kept secure by Test Monitors as they prepare for testing. Test Monitors must complete the MCA Test Monitor course prior to accessing the test materials. Students taking a braille test may need more time to test than print readers, and this should be taken into account when scheduling testing.

Student responses may be recorded in one of the following ways, which should be discussed with the student prior to test administration; some require additional accommodation codes to be documented:

  • In the braille test book by the student
  • With a typewriter or word processor by the student (AT)
  • Dictated to a scribe by the student (SC)
  • With braille writer, slate, and stylus used by the student (AT)

All student responses must be entered online by district staff within the testing window.

Montana

ELA/Reading/Writing/Math

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Contracted and non-contracted braille is available; Nemeth and UEB Technical code(s) are available for math.

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. Due to limitations with refreshable braille technology and math braille codes, refreshable braille is available only for ELA. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Students who are blind and who prefer to use braille should have access to either screen reader support with refreshable braille (only for ELA) or screen reader support with on-site embosser-created braille (for ELA or math). Students who are blind may also take a paper-pencil form of the assessment in braille. Various braille codes are offered for both online and paper-pencil braille.

ELA listening passages:

A braille transcript of the closed captioning created for the listening passages. The braille transcripts are available in the following braille codes:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Students may have difficulty hearing the listening portion of the passage and also do not have enough functional vision to read the closed captioning provided for the passage. These students who are visually impaired or blind and deaf or hard of hearing AND who use braille may have access to Braille Transcripts. These students must be registered in the test registration tool for both braille and closed captioning. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Paper-based:

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Codes available on paper-pencil:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Mathematics

  • EBAE uncontracted with Nemeth

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Science

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. Due to limitations with refreshable braille technology and math braille codes, refreshable braille is available only for ELA. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in TIDE. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Nevada

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Contracted and non-contracted braille is available; Nemeth and UEB Technical code(s) are available for math.

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. Due to limitations with refreshable braille technology and math braille codes, refreshable braille is available only for ELA. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Students who are blind and who prefer to use braille should have access to either screen reader support with refreshable braille (only for ELA) or screen reader support with on-site embosser-created braille (for ELA or math). Students who are blind may also take a paper-pencil form of the assessment in braille. Various braille codes are offered for both online and paper-pencil braille.

ELA listening passages:

A braille transcript of the closed captioning created for the listening passages. The braille transcripts are available in the following braille codes:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Students may have difficulty hearing the listening portion of the passage and also do not have enough functional vision to read the closed captioning provided for the passage. These students who are visually impaired or blind and deaf or hard of hearing AND who use braille may have access to Braille Transcripts. These students must be registered in the test registration tool for both braille and closed captioning. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Paper-based:

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Codes available on paper-pencil:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Mathematics

  • EBAE uncontracted with Nemeth

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

New Hampshire

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Contracted and non-contracted braille is available; Nemeth code is available for math.

Students with visual impairments may read Braille via embosser technology. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in TIDE. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

North Carolina

Assessment materials must be available in the braille code that is used most efficiently by each test taker as indicated on his/her IEP or Section 504 Plan. IEP teams and Section 504 committees must determine at the meeting what braille code is appropriate for the student and document the appropriate type in the accommodations data management system. If the Braille Edition accommodation is provided to the student, as with all accommodations for North Carolina tests, (1) the use must be documented in the current IEP or Section 504 Plan, and (2) the accommodation must be routinely used during instruction and similar classroom assessments. UEB literary code and UEB for math and technical materials code reference sheets do not accompany braille editions for use during secure state test administrations. The information located on such sheets should be addressed during classroom instruction.

North Dakota

For students requiring a Braille test, please refer to Braille Quick Guide Student Settings: and Test Administration found on the North Dakota Assessment Portal under Administration Resources > Quick Start Guides. Braille tests will be administered via a paper Braille test booklet. Braille testers have previously been identified and paper Braille test booklets will be shipped to the schools that have requested them via NDDPI. Requests for Braille booklets must be submitted using the Braille Request form on the NDSA portal no later than the January prior to testing. In the event that your school has received a new Braille student, please contact DPI. Braille Test Administrators will administer the Braille test by using the settings described in the Braille Quick Guide: Student Settings and Test Administration found on the NDSA Portal. The administrator will open a test session on one device and sign in to the secure browser on a second device as the Braille student. The TA will enter student responses directly into the online testing system’s student interface as the student proceeds through the paper Braille test booklet.

Ohio

Braille note-taker: A student who is blind or has visual impairments may use an electronic Braille note-taker. For Ohio’s State Tests, grammar checker, Internet and stored file functionalities must be turned off. The responses of a student who uses an electronic Braille note-taker during Ohio’s State Tests must be transcribed exactly as entered in the electronic Braille note-taker. Only transcribed responses will be scored. Transcription guidelines are available in Appendix C of this manual.

Braille writer: A student who is blind or has visual impairments may use an electronic Braille writer. A test administrator must transcribe into the computer the student’s responses exactly as entered in the electronic Braille writer. Only transcribed responses will be scored. Transcription guidelines are available in Appendix C of this manual.

Oklahoma

The Test Administrator must transcribe student answers verbatim into the standard answer document/test book that was provided in the large-print (paper/pencil) or Braille kit. Braille test formats will be provided on paper using contracted Braille and Nemeth code for numbers and formulas.

Use of Secure Braille note-taker: An electronic note-taker, which may have a Braille or QWERTY-type keyboard, is an adaptive device similar to a PDA. This device may have built-in speech output and/or a refreshable Braille display

Oregon

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Contracted and noncontracted braille is available; Nemeth and UEB Technical code(s) are available for math. Braille Files available in paper form:

ELA

  • EBAE* Contracted
  • EBAE Uncontracted
  • UEB Contracted
  • UEB Uncontracted

Mathematics

  • EBAE Contracted with Nemeth math
  • EBAE Uncontracted with Nemeth math
  • UEB Contracted with Nemeth math
  • UEB Uncontracted with Nemeth math

The type of Braille presented to the student (contracted or uncontracted) is set in TIDE.

Students with visual impairments may read text via Braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. Due to limitations with refreshable Braille technology and math Braille codes, refreshable Braille is available only for ELA or Literary questions within the Math assessment. For Math and Science, Braille files will be provided in paper form via an embosser; embosser produced Braille files can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of Braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in TIDE. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

*With the move to UEB, 2020-21 will be the last year EBAE will be supported for Oregon’s statewide assessments.

Science:

The Science assessment is available to students who use Braille. Braille Files available in paper form:

Science

  • UEB Contracted with Nemeth math

Prior to administering the assessment through the Braille Interface, test administrators must receive both the general test administration and security training provided locally through the school district, as well as specific training on administering the Science assessment through the Braille Interface and its supporting Braille technologies. In addition, districts must ensure that students using the Braille Interface receive training on all supporting Braille equipment and receive an opportunity to access the Practice Tests available on the OSAS portal prior to taking the test.

Pennsylvania

Braille versions must be pre-ordered in the DRC enrollment system. Paper Braille users may order the online audio version in addition to the paper braille version when determined appropriate by IEP team.

Refreshable Braille: The online test engine is compatible with a refreshable Braille device that works with Job Access with Speech (JAWS). The JAWS website is Freedom Scientific JAWS website and is a valuable source to evaluate which refreshable Braille devices are compatible. Refreshable Braille users may also order the audio version when determined appropriate by IEP team. Tactile graphics: Students will be provided with the paper Braille booklet to access any graphics. Refreshable Braille enrollment will prompt the shipment of a matching paper Braille booklet. This booklet must be accounted for and returned to DRC. Refreshable Braille is not available for the Classroom Diagnostic Tool (CDT) due to its adaptive functionality.

Brailler, Note Taker: Responses must be transcribed verbatim into student’s regular answer booklet. IEP team determines if online audio version is appropriate for student to use along with the braille version.

Rhode Island

ACCESS:

BRAILLE WITH TACTILE GRAPHICS. This accommodation is for students proficient in Unified English Braille (UEB) in grades 1-12. Grades 6-8 uses UEB with Nemeth for math and science-related items. Braille is not available for the Speaking Domain. (BR).

DLM:

BRAILLE. The DLM Alternate Assessment System supplies braille forms for some Essential Elements at the upper linkage levels. These forms are available in either uncontracted Unified English Braille (UEB) or English Braille American Edition (EBAE), depending on what the test administrator selects in the student’s PNP Profile. DLM braille forms also include Nemeth code for mathematics, as needed. The DLM alternate assessment is designed to assess a student’s knowledge, skills, and understandings of the EEs, not the student’s ability to use braille. Braille testlets are for students who read braille proficiently. When braille-ready file is available, BRF will be indicated as part of the testlet naming convention: SP BRF SCI MS.PS1-2 T 10455. Since braille forms are not available for every Essential Element at every linkage level, the DLM consortium recommends also selecting Alternate For-Visual Impairment. NOTE: Braille is not to be selected for emerging braille readers. Category 2 Support: Requires additional, nonembedded supports and materials. See testlet TIP sheets for more information. PNP Profile: Uncontracted Braille (check UEB) ALTERNATE FORM - VISUAL IMPAIRMENT. For students with visual impairments or who are blind but do not read braille, please see Alternate Form - Visual Impairment. It is listed under MAGNIFICATION, LARGE PRINT in the Test Support Name column.

BRAILLE WRITER. Student can use a braille writer for note-taking or to respond to test questions. All student responses must be transcribed by the student or a qualified test administrator into the Kite Student Portal. PNP: Not Recorded

NGSA:

REFRESHABLE BRAILLE. Refreshable Braille in UEB with Nemeth is available. Tactile graphics for items can be printed using Print On Demand and an embosser or braille printer. TIDE: Braille Type: UEB Uncontracted with Nemeth Math or UEB Contracted with Nemeth Math and Presentation is Braille Edition

BRAILLE EDITION. A paper edition in UEB with Nemeth is available. Both contracted and uncontracted braille are available. TIDE: Braille Type: UEB Uncontracted with Nemeth Math or UEB Contracted with Nemeth Math and Presentation is Braille Edition

BRAILLE WRITER. Braille writer can be used in conjunction with a screen reader for the online test. TIDE: Braille

BRAILLE WRITER. Student can use a braille writer for note-taking or to respond to test questions. All student responses must be transcribed by the student or a qualified test administrator into the Test Delivery System. TIDE: Braille

RICAS:

REFRESHABLE BRAILLE. Refreshable Braille in UEB is available. Paper edition of Braille should also be ordered for tactile graphics. Braille reader should be used in conjunction with a screen reader. PNP Column: V (Screen Reader)

HARD-COPY BRAILLE. Student uses a hard-copy UEB Braille test. PNP: Column X (Braille Test Edition)

BRAILLE WRITER. A braille writer can be used in conjunction with a screen reader for the online test. PNP Column: V (Screen Reader)

BRAILLE WRITER. Student can use a braille writer for note-taking or to respond to test questions. All student responses must be transcribed by the student or a qualified test administrator into a regular student answer booklet. PNP Column: AQ (Any other accommodation not listed in SR/PNP)

South Carolina

Students who are blind or have low vision may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper, thermoform). Contracted braille (Unified English Braille, Nemeth code is available for math.)

A blind student uses a braille writer or note-taker with the grammar checker, internet, and file-storing functions turned off.

South Dakota

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Contracted and non-contracted braille is available; Nemeth and UEB Technical code(s) are available for math.

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. Due to limitations with refreshable braille technology and math braille codes, refreshable braille is available only for ELA. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Students who are blind and who prefer to use braille should have access to either screen reader support with refreshable braille (only for ELA) or screen reader support with on-site embosser-created braille (for ELA or math). Students who are blind may also take a paper-pencil form of the assessment in braille. Various braille codes are offered for both online and paper-pencil braille.

ELA listening passages:

A braille transcript of the closed captioning created for the listening passages. The braille transcripts are available in the following braille codes:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Students may have difficulty hearing the listening portion of the passage and also do not have enough functional vision to read the closed captioning provided for the passage. These students who are visually impaired or blind and deaf or hard of hearing AND who use braille may have access to Braille Transcripts. These students must be registered in the test registration tool for both braille and closed captioning. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Paper-based:

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Codes available on paper-pencil:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Mathematics

  • EBAE uncontracted with Nemeth

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Texas

  1. A student who uses this designated support may complete the test in a separate setting to eliminate distractions to other students and to ensure the confidentiality of the test.
  2. Student responses cannot be scored unless they are recorded using a No. 2 pencil on an answer document according to the procedures outlined in the Basic Transcribing and/or Complex Transcribing policies.
  3. Specific information about administering braille tests is available in the General Instructions for Administering Braille State Assessments document, located TEA’s Accommodation Resources webpage. This document also contains specific information about administering braille tests to students who use online screen reader support for refreshable braille displays. Online screen reader support for refreshable braille displays will include visually hidden content presented to the screen reader and refreshable braille display only. If a student requires assistance with online screen reader support for refreshable braille displays, including how to access visually hidden content, refer to the JAWS help screen in the Available Tools during an online administration. For students who use online screen reader support for refreshable braille displays, a paper version of a braille test booklet should be ordered through the Assessment Management System. A student may refer to the braille booklet at any time, as needed.
  4. For students who are taking STAAR using a refreshable braille display, the student will not be able to use the new speech-to-text functionality. Districts should continue to use the same process for transcription that is being used in daily instruction in the classroom. For example, districts may use Dragon speech recognition software for the transcription of the student essay.
  5. Specific Braille Instructions (SBI) supplement the test administrator manuals. They are shipped with the individual braille kits and posted online two weeks prior to testing in the Assessment Management System. Test administrators must review these instructions prior to test day to ensure that the test is administered properly. Testing irregularities could result if the SBIs are not used.
  6.  For students taking STAAR braille, including students using a refreshable braille display, who are also eligible to receive content and language supports, districts should contact the Texas Assessment Support Center to order STAAR with Embedded Supports materials. Districts do not need to submit a request for TEA to approve for the STAAR with Embedded Supports. Test administrators will be provided with instructions regarding the administration of Content and Language Supports for students taking a braille test or using screen reader support for refreshable braille displays.

Utah

Braille is a method of reading a raised dot code with the fingertips. Not all students who are blind or visually impaired read braille fluently or choose braille as their primary mode of reading. Even if they use braille as their primary mode of reading, students should also build skills in using electronic formats, such as audio recordings and synthesized speech.

Tactile graphic images provide graphic information through fingers instead of eyes. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations) is presented in a raised format. Tactile sensitivity (recognizing graphic images through touch) is less discriminating than visual reading, making many diagrams too complicated to understand without significant additional information. Braille and/or tactile graphics may be used for instruction and assessment. Auditory descriptions of graphics may be available on assessments.

Screen reading software, which includes both text and graphics description for students who are blind or visually impaired, can be used for instruction or assessment. Some screen readers, such as JAWS, are developed for computer users whose vision loss prevents them from seeing screen content. A refreshable braille display or braille terminal is an electro‐mechanical device for displaying braille characters, usually by means of raising dots through holes in a flat surface. Computer users who are blind or visually impaired may use refreshable braille to read text output. Some students may need human assistance to enter responses, which is allowed for students using this accommodation.

Vermont

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Contracted and non-contracted braille is available; Nemeth and UEB Technical code(s) are available for math.

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. Due to limitations with refreshable braille technology and math braille codes, refreshable braille is available only for ELA. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Students who are blind and who prefer to use braille should have access to either screen reader support with refreshable braille (only for ELA) or screen reader support with on-site embosser-created braille (for ELA or math). Students who are blind may also take a paper-pencil form of the assessment in braille. Various braille codes are offered for both online and paper-pencil braille.

ELA listening passages:

A braille transcript of the closed captioning created for the listening passages. The braille transcripts are available in the following braille codes:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Students may have difficulty hearing the listening portion of the passage and also do not have enough functional vision to read the closed captioning provided for the passage. These students who are visually impaired or blind and deaf or hard of hearing AND who use braille may have access to Braille Transcripts. These students must be registered in the test registration tool for both braille and closed captioning. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Paper-based:

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Codes available on paper-pencil:

ELA

  • EBAE uncontracted
  • EBAE contracted
  • UEB uncontracted
  • UEB contracted

Mathematics

  • EBAE uncontracted with Nemeth

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or non-contracted) is set in the test registration tool. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Virginia

Braille tests are available only to students with documented visual impairments. Braille tests are only available in paper formats. A copy of the braille test is provided in regular print to the Test Examiner or Proctor administering the braille test. For details regarding the Braille code used for individual SOL tests, refer to the Virginia SOL Test Implementation Manuals.

Blind and vision impaired students may use a braille writer as scratch paper to take notes or complete calculations, to respond to the writing prompt of the short-paper component of the Writing test, or to record responses to multiple-choice questions on the SOL tests.

Washington

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch.

ELA listening portions: Students may have difficulty hearing the listening portion of the passage and also do not have enough functional vision to read the closed captioning provided for the passage. Students who are visually impaired or blind and deaf or hard of hearing AND who use braille may have access to braille transcripts.

Refreshable braille is only available for ELA because Nemeth Braille code cannot be supported using refreshable braille. For math, braille will be presented via an embosser; embosser-created braille can also be used for ELA.

Emboss is selected if an embosser is being used as opposed to using JAWS. Allows braille to be presented via embosser; used for ELA and math when Braille is selected in Presentation. The content of a test determines whether passages and questions are delivered to a Braille embosser or to a Refreshable Braille Display (RBD) via JAWS.

ELA: Test content is presented to students with questions in either contracted or uncontracted literary Braille: Questions containing only text are sent to an RBD. Questions containing text and images that an RBD cannot read are sent to a Braille embosser.

Math: All test content is delivered in Nemeth Braille via a Braille embosser.

West Virginia

Braille test booklet:

This is a contracted braille paper form of the test. Uncontracted braille is not provided unless the Office of Assessment receives a special accommodations request. Braille is a raised-dot code individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper, thermoform or refreshable braille display when available). The student uses contracted braille (a system that reduces the number of cells by abbreviating words or parts of words), and Nemeth code braille (a system used to convey technical expressions that occur in mathematics and science).

WVASA notes

  • Uncontracted braille – Testlets are delivered as .brf files and will need to be embossed by the test administrator.

WVGSA Grades 3-8 notes

  • Paper braille test editions are ordered prior to the assessment by the district.
  • This accommodation cannot be paired with P17 – Braille computer test – computer adaptive test format. Section III. Guide to Accommodations | 53
  • This accommodation cannot be paired with P35 - Braille computer-based, fixed form, with paper booklet for tactile graphics.
  • See Appendix BB. Braille Accommodations Selections and WVGSA Grades 3-8 for additional guidance on selecting braille-based accommodations.

Braille computer test:

WVGSA Grades 3-8 notes

  • This accommodation cannot be paired with P03 – Paper Braille Test Booklet.
  • The default setting is contracted braille. Uncontracted braille is available and can be locally set.
  • For ELA and science, braille will be presented via embosser or refreshable braille display.
  • For mathematics, this accommodation requires an embosser which provides access to the tactile graphics. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment. The files for the embosser will need to be downloaded and may take additional time to print.
  • Only if the student needs to access math problems via a pre-printed-embossed paper booklet for mathematics, additionally select P35 - Braille computer-based fixed form with paper booklet for tactile graphics (available for Math only).
  • See Appendix BB. Appendix BB. Braille Accommodations Selections and WVGSA Grades 3-8 for additional guidance on selecting braille-based accommodations.

Braille computer-based, fixed form, with paper booklet for tactile graphics:

Students who use braille. The mathematics braille booklet provides the tactile graphics necessary for the mathematics portion of the assessment. This will allow the student the opportunity to interact with the assessment via the computer and may decrease the amount of time required for online braille testing. Embossing of the tactile graphics is not required. The braille math section is an online fixed-form. It is expected that this is a very time efficient way to access information. The tactile graphics are provided (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) in the braille paper booklet. This eliminates the need for embossing numerous mathematics items that are displayed in Nemeth code. Nemeth code is a familiar braille code for mathematics. The use of tactile graphics makes visual content available to a student who is blind or has low vision.

Braille writer or tactile to respond:

For this response mode, a student uses a brailler, which is a braille keyboard used for typing braille that can then be printed in standard print or braille (embosser). The brailler is similar to a typewriter or computer keyboard. Paper is inserted into the brailler, and multiple keys are pressed at once, creating braille dots with each press.

WVGSA Grades 3-8 notes

  • A scribe must transcribe the student’s responses to the testing website using the student’s username, and password. (R04)
  • A trained examiner acts as a scribe to transcribe student responses to the testing platform.

Wisconsin

A paper copy braille version of the test will be available at each grade level and content area. All tests will be presented in Unified English Braille (UEB) and will follow Nemeth Code for mathematical and scientific notation where appropriate.

In addition to selecting the braille accommodation for a student in the DRC INSIGHT Portal, DACs must order printed braille tests using the “additional materials” request page in the DRC INSIGHT Portal. All student responses must be transcribed into the online testing system (INSIGHT) by the test administrator or other designated person using the student’s test ticket. The test ticket must have BRL next to accommodations to ensure that the online test form and the braille form have matching content for all questions. The printed test must be treated as secure testing material. See the Test Administration Manual on the Forward Exam Resources webpage for more information on the braille process including test security procedures. http://dpi.wi.gov/assessment/forward/resources

For Braille administration instructions refer to the Test Administration Manual. NOTE: Braille Item Samplers are available on request from the test vendor. Please contact your DAC to request these materials.

Wyoming

A raised-dot code that individuals read with the fingertips. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform).

ELA

  • UEB contracted; Note: UEB uncontracted will be offered in grades 3-6 during the 2018-19 school year

Mathematics

  • UEB contracted with Nemeth
  • UEB contracted with UEB Math

Science

  • UEB contracted with Nemeth

Students with visual impairments may read text via braille. Tactile overlays and graphics also may be used to assist the student in accessing content through touch. Due to limitations with refreshable braille technology and math braille codes, refreshable braille is available only for ELA. For math, braille will be presented via embosser; embosser-created braille can be used for ELA also. Alternative text descriptions are embedded in the assessment for all graphics. The type of braille presented to the student (contracted or uncontracted) is set in TIDE. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Any portion of the test embossed during testing must be collected and securely destroyed in order to protect the security of the test content.

ELA listening:

A braille transcript of the closed captioning created for the listening passages. The braille transcripts are available in the following braille codes:

ELA

  • UEB contracted; Note: UEB uncontracted will be offered in grades 3-6 during the 2018-19 school year

Students may have difficulty hearing the listening portion of the passage and also do not have enough functional vision to read the closed captioning provided for the passage. These students who have dual sensory impairment AND who use braille on a regular basis during instruction may have access to Braille Transcripts. These students must be registered in TIDE, or members’ comparable platform, for both Braille and Closed Captioning. The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment. Any transcripts, descriptions, captions or content embossed during testing must be collected and securely destroyed in order to protect the security of the test content.

Attribution

All rights reserved. Any or all portions of this document may be reproduced and distributed without prior permission, provided the source is cited as:

  • Lazarus, S. S., Quanbeck, M., Hinkle, A. R., & Albus, D. (2021). Braille: States’ accessibility policies, 2020 (NCEO Accommodations Toolkit #2b). National Center on Educational Outcomes.

NCEO is supported through a Cooperative Agreement (#H326G160001) with the Research to Practice Division, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. The Center is affiliated with the Institute on Community Integration at the College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota. NCEO does not endorse any of the commercial products used in the studies. The contents of this report were developed under the Cooperative Agreement from the U.S. Department of Education, but does not necessarily represent the policy or opinions of the U.S. Department of Education or Offices within it. Readers should not assume endorsement by the federal government. Project Officer: David Egnor