Accommodations Toolkit

Large Print: States’ Accessibility Policies, 2022

Share this page

National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO)

This summary of states’ accessibility policies for large print is part of the Accommodations Toolkit published by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO).[1] The toolkit also contains a summary of the research literature on large print.

Accessibility policies often have several tiers of accessibility features: universal features, designated features, and accommodations.[2] Figure 1 summarizes how states included large print in their accessibility policies for students with disabilities in 2022. Table 1 shows how large print was included in the policies, while Table 2 contains additional details and specifications.

Figure 1. States’ Accessibility Policies for Students with Disabilities for Large Print, 2022

Reading/ELA/Writing

  • Universal Features (U): 0 States
  • Designated Features (D): 4 States
  • Accommodations (A): 36 States

Math

  • Universal Features (U): 0 States
  • Designated Features (D): 4 States
  • Accommodations (A): 37 States

Science

  • Universal Features (U): 0 States
  • Designated Features (D): 4 States
  • Accommodations (A): 36 States

Table 1. Accommodations Policies for Large Print by State, 2022

U = Universal Feature, D = Designated Feature, A = Accommodation, ELA = English Language Arts, X = Allowed, SD = Allowed for Students with Disabilities, Blank cell = no policy found, N = Notes in Table 2

State

Reading/ELA/Writing

Math

Science

Notes

(See Table 2)

U

D

A

U

D

A

U

D

A

Alabama

SD

SD

SD

N

Alaska

SD

SD

SD

N

Arizona

Arkansas

SD

SD

SD

N

California

SD

SD

SD

N

Colorado

SD

SD

SD

N

Connecticut

SD

SD

SD

N

Delaware

SD

SD

SD

N

District of Columbia

SD

SD

SD

N

Florida

SD

SD

SD

N

Georgia

SD

SD

SD

N

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

SD

SD

SD

N

Indiana

SD

SD

SD

N

Iowa

X

X

X

N

Kansas

Kentucky

SD

SD

SD

Louisiana

SD

N

Maine

Maryland

SD

SD

SD

N

Massachusetts

SD

SD

SD

N

Michigan

SD

SD

SD

N

Minnesota

SD

SD

SD

N

Mississippi

SD

SD

SD

N

Missouri

SD

SD

SD

N

Montana

Nebraska

SD

SD

SD

N

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

SD

SD

SD

N

New Mexico

SD

SD

SD

N

New York

SD

SD

SD

N

North Carolina

SD

SD

SD

N

North Dakota

X

X

X

N

Ohio

Oklahoma

SD

SD

SD

N

Oregon

X

X

X

N

Pennsylvania

SD

SD

SD

N

Rhode Island

SD

SD

SD

N

South Carolina

SD

SD

SD

N

South Dakota

SD

SD

SD

N

Tennessee

SD

SD

SD

Texas

X

X

X

N

Utah

SD

SD

SD

N

Vermont

Virginia

SD

SD

SD

N

Washington

SD

SD

SD

N

West Virginia

SD

SD

SD

N

Wisconsin

SD

SD

SD

N

Wyoming

SD

SD

SD

N

Total (Students with Disabilities)

0

4

36

0

4

37

0

4

36

Table 2. Details and Specifications: States’ Large Print Accessibility Policies

State

Details/Specifications

Alabama

Accommodation:

A Large Print paper form of the test may be provided to a student with a visual impairment. The font is 18 point. However, a magnifier is embedded in the online test engine that magnifies up to twice the size and may be more appropriate. Setting: Large group, small group, or individual, as long as all students in the session are testing on a Large Print form. Considerations/Constraints:

  • Only students with a visual impairment documented in an IEP or Section 504 Plan qualify for a Large Print form.
  • If testing individually, a Test Administrator and a Proctor are required.
  • If testing in a large or small group, the group is limited to other students taking the test in a Large Print booklet.
  • Test Administrators are responsible for keeping up with the timing of the test sessions according to allotted times shown in the ACAP Summative Test Administration Manual. Unless the student has been granted an extended time accommodation, these test times must be strictly adhered to.

Alaska

Accommodation:

Students may require larger text and graphics. Large print version of the test is 18pt font on 11 x 17 paper.

Arkansas

Accommodation:

Test booklets printed in 18-point font, instead of the standard 10-point font. Recommended Usage: Examinees with visual impairments. Requires time for shipment of paper-based materials. A large print test booklet and answer sheet are provided. Responses on the large-print answer document must be transcribed to a standard print answer document for scoring.

California

Accommodation:

Large-print special forms are available for ELA, math, CAST, and ELPAC. LEAs must request approval from the California Department of Education (CDE) to qualify for these printed materials.

Colorado

Accommodation:

Large print paper-based forms are available for students as documented in their IEP or 504 plans. The large print test is packaged as a kit. The enlarged print test books are printed in full color on ivory paper. Test questions are printed in 18-point font; graphics are enlarged. The large print test books are spiral bound and the dimensions of the books are 14 inches by 18 inches. A large print source book is included in the large print test kit for social studies. In the science large print test kits only, a magnifier sheet is included and can be used to increase font size on the printed periodic table as not all text on this document meets the 18-point font minimum. As needed, separate visual descriptions are included in the large print test kits. These picture descriptions describe images or graphics in the student’s test book. Test Administrators must transcribe student answers into the regular print test book provided in the large print kit which is returned to the vendor for scoring. Student work and/or answers that are not transcribed are not scored. See 6.1.6 Transcription Instructions. Note: Students should be familiar with the use of large print and large paper-based test books as part of their regular instruction and classroom testing environment.

Connecticut

Accommodation:

This accommodation is a fixed-form test booklet that provides enlarged content. It is typically used by students who have visual disabilities. Students using this accommodation will not have access to the adaptive version of the assessment and may require additional time for the assessment. These students are typically supported with Large Print or visual supports documented in their IEP or Section 504 Plan.

Delaware

Accommodation:

Large Print paper versions are available to students with visual impairments. Complete a Unique Accommodations request. Large print test materials are printed in 18-point font on 11x17 paper. Large print test kits must be specially ordered, and they include everything required to administer the test. Student responses recorded on large print materials must be transcribed verbatim into the scannable test booklets for scoring. Return both booklets at the end of testing. Only the booklet for transcription will be scanned and scored.

District of Columbia

Accommodation:

A large print paper-based form of each assessment is available for a student with a visual impairment who is unable to take a computer-based assessment. The font size for the PARCC large print edition will be 18 point on paper sized 14" x 18". Students will not record their answers in standard print test booklets or answer documents. Instead, students will circle their answers in a large print test booklet. For constructed response items, students will write their answers on the lines provided in their large print test booklets. In mathematics, students will need to write their answers in boxes at the top of the answer grids, but they do not need to bubble in their answers. Test Administrators should refer to the TAM Scripts for instances where they should demonstrate an activity or display information. Demonstrations should be conducted where they are visible for each student (e.g., on the board, near the student). Responses must be transcribed verbatim by a Test Administrator in a standard student test booklet or answer document, which is included in the Large Print Test Kit. Only transcribed responses will be scored. At least two persons must be present during transcription of student responses (one transcriber and one observer confirming accuracy). It is recommended that one of the individuals be an LEA or School Test Coordinator.

Florida

Accommodation:

A large print paper version of the test may be requested for a student. The minimum font size for large print test materials is 18 points. Student eligibility for large print test materials must be submitted to FDOE.

Georgia

Accommodation:

If a student needs a large-print test edition, it must be ordered in a timely manner. After a student finishes a large-print edition of a test, a certified educator, under the supervision of the School Test Coordinator, must transcribe the student’s answers verbatim onto a standard answer sheet.

Illinois

Accommodation:

A large print paper-based form of each assessment is available for a student with a visual impairment who is unable to take a computer-based assessment. The font size for the large print edition will be 18 point on paper sized 14" x 18". Students will not record their answers in standard print test booklets or answer documents. Instead, students will circle their answers in a large print test booklet. For constructed response items, students will write their answers on the lines provided in their large print test booklets. In mathematics, students will need to write their answers in boxes at the top of the answer grids, but they do not need to bubble in their answers. Test Administrators should refer to the TAM Scripts for instances where they should demonstrate an activity or display information. Demonstrations should be conducted where they are visible for each student (e.g., on the board, near the student). Responses must be transcribed verbatim by a Test Administrator in a standard student test booklet or answer document, which is included in the Large Print Test Kit. Only transcribed responses will be scored. At least two persons must be present during transcription of student responses (one transcriber and one observer confirming accuracy). It is recommended that one of the individuals be a DTC or School Test Coordinator.

Indiana

Accommodation:

Large-print assessment booklets are printed in 18 pt. font. NOTE: The online print size may be changed to 24 pt., 31 pt., 41 pt., and 51 pt. with higher options available with streamline mode and may be more appropriate than a paper version.

Iowa

Designated Feature:

A large print version of the paper test will be created and distributed to students who have been identified as requiring a printed large print assessment. Students with visual impairments who may not be able to use zoom or magnifying devices to access the test may need a paper large print version of the form.

Louisiana

Accommodation (Math):

A hardcopy Large Print Math Spanish form is available for students with a visual impairment who are unable to take a standard print paper-based or online assessment. Students will not record their responses in a standard print consumable test booklet. Instead, students will mark their responses in the Large Print form. Student responses must be transcribed verbatim into a standard print consumable test booklet, which is included in the Large Print Math Spanish Kit. Only responses transcribed into a standard print consumable test booklet will be scored.

[Note: This policy is not for all English learners but rather for English learners with a disability.]

Maryland

Accommodation:

Large print materials are produced larger than the print used in regular print materials. While regular print materials range from 8-12 points font in size, large print materials are produced in 18-point font or larger. Most large print materials are enlarged in size from the regular print on a copier machine. Large print can also be produced digitally by reformatting the font size, font style, spacing, and page layout. Care must be taken when enlarging mathematics and science materials. Pages that have graphics that are to scale for measuring tasks must be enlarged so the print on the page (questions, answer choices, measurement labels) is large, but the graphic must not be enlarged, remaining to scale so the student using large print has the same measurements as students using regular print. Students who are visually impaired must have an assessment of their learning/literacy medium to determine if large print is the most appropriate medium. This assessment will determine the optimal print size to provide access to materials and maximize literacy. Students who are not visually impaired can also use large print materials if data show that the use of large print improved their performance in reading skills (i.e., comprehension, fluency). The use of large print does not necessarily help students with visual tracking or reading difficulties. When selecting large print materials, consider the weight and size of the books, access to the selected medium, and student performance. Large print in electronic formats can be provided by enlarging foot size or percent of view.

Massachusetts

Accommodation:

All responses in the large-print booklet must be transcribed verbatim from the large-print booklet to the student’s combined test & answer booklet (or standard answer booklet for legacy tests) and returned according to instructions in the PAM, so student will receive credit for his or her work. Large-print special instructions will accompany the large-print test. Students may either use the large-print booklet to respond to test questions, in which case the answers will need to be transcribed, either by the student (at the time of testing) or a test administrator (anytime during the test window); OR the student may write answers directly in the test & answer booklet. IEPs and 504 plans should indicate how students taking the large-print test will record their answers.

Michigan

Accommodation:

Students with visual impairments and other print disabilities may use an enlarged version of the paper/pencil assessment. The use of this support may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment. Refer to the Test Administrator Manual for information related to transcribing and returning these materials. Form 1 is used as the basis for the enlarged print version of the M-STEP and MI-Access assessments. Students who use this form of the assessment must have their answers transferred onto a regular answer document. If a student uses an enlarged print version as an Accommodation, a test administrator, proctor, or accommodations provider may need to transcribe the student’s response from the enlarged print test booklet onto a regular answer document that is returned along with other scorable materials. Spelling, punctuation, indentation, etc., must be transcribed exactly as presented in the student’s original response. Once student responses have been transcribed to a regular answer document, the original document can be returned in a non-scorable box. Refer to the relevant Test Administration Manuals for additional details.

Minnesota

Accommodation:

A large print test book is for students with low vision who need an increased font size to see the test items. Large print test books are available in 18-point and 24-point fonts. For students without low vision, a large print test book may be provided for Science MCA if the IEP or 504 plan specifies a paper test book since the only paper test book available is in large print. The applicable test book will be automatically shipped if the code is indicated in Pretest Editing by Jan. 21; after this date, it must be ordered as an additional order in PearsonAccess Next. All student responses must be entered online by district staff within the testing window. Refer to Entering Student Responses Online for MCA Paper Accommodations earlier in this chapter. Note: Paper test books (12, 18, 24, BC, or BU) cannot be used together.

Mississippi

Accommodation:

Students who regularly use large-print materials in the classroom may qualify for large-print materials on state assessments. The use of a large-print answer document for students testing with a large-print test booklet is required on selected state assessments. Two certified individuals must transcribe the answers verbatim to a regular test booklet or online system containing the student’s demographic information.

Missouri

Accommodation:

Students with visual impairments with this accommodation in their IEP/504 plan may access the assessment via a Large Print version.

Nebraska

Accommodation:

A large print form of the test that is provided to the student with a visual impairment. A student may respond directly into test booklet. Test administrator transfers answers onto answer document. Students with visual impairments who may not be able to use zoom or magnifying devices to access the test and may need a large print version of the form.

New Jersey

Accommodation:

A large print paper-based form of each assessment is available for a student with a visual impairment who is unable to take a computer-based assessment. The font size for the NJSLA large print edition will be 18 point on paper sized 14" x 18". Students will not record their answers in standard print test booklets or answer documents. Instead, students will circle their answers in the large print test booklet. For constructed response items, students will write their answers on the lines provided in their large print test booklets. In mathematics, students will need to write their answers in boxes at the top of the answer grids, but they do not need to bubble in their answers. Test Administrators should refer to the TAM Scripts for instances where they should demonstrate an activity or display information. Demonstrations should be conducted where they are visible for each student (e.g., on the board, near the student). Responses must be transcribed verbatim by a Test Administrator in the standard student test booklet or answer document, which is included in the Large Print Test Kit. Only transcribed responses will be scored. At least two persons must be present during transcription of student responses (one transcriber and one observer confirming accuracy). It is recommended that one of the individuals be a District or School Test Coordinator.

New Mexico

Accommodation:

For students with visual impairments. Test materials formatted with font considerably larger than usual. PBT ordered from the vendor. Used individually or in small group testing.

North Carolina

Accommodation:

The Large Print Edition accommodation is not applicable for online tests because the font size can be designated as large font for any student before the test administration. For tests delivered online, the font size is 12-point Verdana for standard test forms and 18-point Verdana for large font tests. However, these are print measurements and computer screen resolution and size settings can greatly affect the actual size of fonts on screen. If the size of the large font is not enough for a student with visual impairments, the large font option may be used in conjunction with the Magnification Devices accommodation, or a large print edition of the paper test may be ordered. The Large Print Edition accommodation allows a student to take a test using an enlarged version of the test. The Annual Testing Program’s standard test forms are printed on 8.5" x 11" paper, using 12-point Verdana font. The Annual Testing Program’s large print edition tests are printed on 11" x 17" paper, using 22-point Verdana font. The large print editions are printed one-sided and come stapled. When a test item requires superscript or subscript, the text of the superscript and subscript is in 22-point Verdana font, and the text in the question and answer containing them is enlarged to 33-point Verdana font. The graph paper included with the large print edition is comprised of 1/2-inch squares. Students typically circle their responses to questions directly on the large print edition of the test (i.e., uses the Student Marks Answers in Test Book accommodation as documented in the IEP or Section 504 Plan).

North Dakota

Designated Feature:

The size of specific screens may be adjusted by the learner or with an assistive technology device or magnification software. Large-print tests or magnifying devices may also be used.

Oklahoma

Accommodation:

The Test Administrator must transcribe student answers verbatim into the standard answer document/test book that was provided in the large print (paper/pencil) or Braille kit.

Oregon

Designated Feature:

A student may use any visual magnification device that does not compromise the security of the Statewide Assessment. A student or TA may not upload an assessment to a non-secure browser in order to access the tool, and may not photocopy or scan assessment materials outside of the services provided by the Oregon Textbook and Media Center (OTMC) in order to enlarge assessment materials (unless otherwise approved by ODE). The use of visual magnification software is currently only allowed if computer hardware will support it. This use is intended to allow access to functions specific to the enlargement of text and/or to ensure access to text by altering the color or contrast features. Test security must be maintained at all times. ODE will not make application changes based on specific local software or hardware requirements.

Pennsylvania

Accommodation:

Must be transcribed into regular answer booklet. 18-point font; exact replica of standard test pages; extra-large size test booklet. Not available for Spanish-English version. Math measurement graphics are not enlarged. An enlarged ruler is not provided. Students should use a high contrast or tactile ruler as used in instruction. Test must be ordered through DRC; may not be enlarged locally. Regular answer booklet and enlarged print test booklet must be returned to DRC.

Rhode Island

Accommodation:

Students may either use the large-print booklet to respond to test questions, in which case the student’s answers will need to be transcribed by the test administrator (anytime during the test window) into the standard answer booklet, OR the student may write answers directly in the standard answer booklet. Indicate in the student’s IEP/504 how they will record their answers.

  • 18-point font size on 11x17 paper.
  • Transcribe all responses from the large-print booklet to the student’s standard answer booklet and return according to instructions in the Test Coordinator Manual.
  • Special instructions will accompany the large-print test.

South Carolina

Accommodation:

A large print form of the test that is provided to the student with a visual impairment. Students with visual impairments who may not be able to use zoom or magnifying devices to access the test and may need a large print version of the form.

South Dakota

Accommodation:

A large print paper form of the test that is provided to the student with a visual impairment. This accommodation is appropriate for a very small number of students. Students with visual impairments who may not be able to use zoom or magnifying devices to access the online test may need a large print paper test.

Texas

Designated Feature:

This designated support provides a student with enlarged test materials when he or she is unable to effectively access test materials in standard print size.

A student may use this designated support if that student:

  • routinely and effectively uses large-print materials, including text books, worksheets, etc., during classroom instruction and classroom testing; and
  • meets at least one of the following:
    • The student has an impairment in vision (e.g., uncorrected vision, nystagmus, qualifies for special education services with a Visual Impairment [VI]).
    • The student is not able to accurately track letter to letter, word to word, or line to line.
    • The student has a physical disability which necessitates the use of large-print materials.

Utah

Accommodation:

Students with visual impairments or other print disabilities may need assistance viewing content. Access for students with visual needs is typically provided through enlarging content. Large print paper assessments may no longer be needed in computer‐based testing if magnification of the entire screen and/or magnification of select areas is available. Larger monitors may also aid students in computer‐based assessments. Large‐print editions of instructional materials are required for some students with visual impairments or print disabilities. All text and graphic materials, including labels and captions on pictures, diagrams, maps, charts, exponential numbers, notes, and footnotes, must be presented in at least 18‐point type for students who need large print. Students, working with their teachers, need to find an optimal print size and determine the smallest print that can still be read (copyright issues may need to be addressed).

Virginia

Accommodation:

Large-print tests are available primarily for students who have a documented visual impairment. The large-print SOL test forms are designed to ensure that students with visual impairments can access test content as documented in the IEP or 504 Plan. The font type for the large-print test is Tahoma and the font size is 18-20 pt. Any text embedded in graphics, maps, tables, or charts is enlarged proportionately to the size of the item. A copy of the large-print test is provided in regular print to the Examiner or Proctor administering the test.

Washington

Accommodation:

A large print paper form of the test that is provided to the student with a visual impairment. The font size for the large print form is 18 point on paper sized 11 x 17. This accommodation is appropriate for a very small number of students. Students with visual impairments who may not be able to use zoom or magnifying devices to access the online test may need a large print paper test.

West Virginia

Accommodation:

All text and graphic materials, including labels and captions on pictures, diagrams, maps, charts, exponential numbers, notes, and footnotes, are presented in at least 18- point type for students who need large print. The large print version does not contain contrast and is useful for students who have vision impairment or have difficulty in discriminating shades of contrast in graphs and charts. Student responses must be transcribed through the DEI to the test administration system by the trained scribe upon completion of testing session. If this accommodation is selected, the student must complete the entire test as a paper-tester. There are no “hybrid” options available such as completing the ELA on-line and the Math via paper testing.

Wisconsin

Accommodation:

Test booklets printed in 18-point font, instead of the standard 10-point font. Recommended Usage: Examinees with visual impairments.

Attribution

All rights reserved. Any or all portions of this document may be reproduced and distributed without prior permission, provided the source is cited as:

  • Lazarus, S. S., Quanbeck, M., & Goldstone, L. (2022). Large print: States’ accessibility policies, 2022 (NCEO Accommodations Toolkit #20b). National Center on Educational Outcomes.

The Center is supported through a Cooperative Agreement (#H326G210002) with the Research to Practice Division, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. The Center is affiliated with the Institute on Community Integration at the College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota. Consistent with EDGAR §75.62, the contents of this report were developed under the Cooperative Agreement from the U.S. Department of Education, but do not necessarily represent the policy or opinions of the U.S. Department of Education or Offices within it. Readers should not assume endorsement by the federal government. Project Officer: David Egnor