Accommodations Toolkit

Extended Time: States' Accessibility Policies, 2023

National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO)

This summary of states’ accessibility policies for extended time is part of the Accommodations Toolkit published by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO).[1] The toolkit also contains a summary of the research literature on extended time.

Accessibility policies often have several tiers of accessibility features: universal features, designated features, and accommodations. [2] Figure 1 summarizes how states included extended time in their accessibility policies for students with disabilities in 2023. Figure 2 summarizes how states included extended time in their accessibility policies for English learners in 2023. Table 1 shows how extended time was included in the policies, while Table 2 contains additional details and specifications.

Figure 1. States’ Accessibility Policies for Students with Disabilities for Extended Time, 2023

Reading/ELA/Writing

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 20 States

Math

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 20 States

Science

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 21 States

Figure 2. States’ Accessibility Policies for English Learners for Extended Time, 2023

Reading/ELA/Writing

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 15 States

Math

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 15 States

Science

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 16 States

Table 1. Accommodations Policies for Extended Time by State, 2023

U = Universal Feature, D = Designated Feature, A = Accommodation, ELA = English Language Arts, X = Allowed, SD = Allowed for Students with Disabilities, E = English Learners, P = Prohibited, Blank cell = no policy found, N = Notes in Table 2

State

Reading/ELA/Writing

Math

Science

Notes

(See Table 2)

U

D

A

U

D

A

U

D

A

Alabama

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Alaska

SD, E

SD, E

SD,E

N

Arizona

Arkansas

SD

SD

SD

N

California

Colorado

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Connecticut

Delaware

District of Columbia

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Florida

SD

SD

SD

N

Georgia

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Indiana

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Iowa

X

X

X

N

Kansas

Kentucky

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Louisiana

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Maine

SD, E

N

Maryland

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Massachusetts

Michigan

X

X

X

Minnesota

X

X

X

N

Mississippi

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

New Mexico

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

New York

SD

SD

SD

North Carolina

SD

SD

SD

N

North Dakota

Ohio

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

X

X

X

N

Rhode Island

X

X

X

N

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Texas

Utah

N

Vermont

N

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

SD

SD

SD

N

Total (Students with Disabilities)

4

1

20

4

1

20

4

1

21

Total (English Learners)

4

1

15

4

1

15

4

1

16

Table 2. Details and Specifications: States’ Extended Time Accessibility Policies

State

Details/Specifications

Alabama

Accommodation:

Extended Time: Student is allowed more time than allotted for each assessment. In most cases, the extended time is defined for students and not open-ended. This accommodation is usually expressed as one and one-half time (1.5) or double (2.0) or triple (3.0) the standard test time for an assessment as the maximum amount of time for a student to test. Students should be tested in a separate setting to minimize distractions and should be scheduled for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completing the assessment. Extended time may not extend beyond a school day; students must complete each test session on the same day the session is started. Decisions regarding how much time a student is provided must be made on a case-by-case basis for each individual student, not for any category of students or group. Typically, if a student needs extended time, one and one-half time is sufficient. For some accommodations, such as use of a human reader or scribe, double or triple time may be appropriate.

Alaska

Accommodation:

Additional time: Student may take additional time to complete assessments as needed beyond the time typically scheduled for all students.

Arkansas

Accommodation:

Extra Testing Time: Additional time to complete testing—one and one-half time, double time, two and one-half time, triple time, or quadruple time.

Using extra time is a skill, and should not be provided without prior instruction on time management. Timing is part of test standardization. Providing extra time to examinees who do not require it to access the test may result in scores which are not representative of the examinee's skills. For text-to-speech, triple time (300%) is built into TestNav; therefore, extra time cannot be selected in PearsonAccessnext. The time may be extended, if necessary, after the timer stops by using the Proctor Password.

Colorado

Accommodation (Students with Disabilities):

Timing Accommodations: Adjustments to the unit testing time may be made for students with a documented need for the accommodation in their IEP or 504 plans: Time and a Half, Double Time, and Stop-the-Clock Breaks.

Accommodation (English Learners):

Time and a Half: Accommodation available to students using English forms as documented on their ML plans. For students using Spanish math, Spanish science, or CSLA Spanish forms, a need for time and a half must be documented on an IEP or 504 plan.

Stop-the-Clock Breaks: The stop-the-clock breaks accommodation is available to students using English forms as documented on their ML plans. For students using Spanish forms, a need for stop the clock breaks must be documented on an IEP or 504 plan.

District of Columbia

Accommodation (Students with Disabilities):

Extended Time: Student has until the end of the school day to complete a single test unit administered during the prescribed testing window. It is recommended to test students receiving the extended time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions to other students, and to schedule these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test unit by the end of the school day. If needed, each unit of the Science Assessment may be administered on a separate day.

Accommodation (English Learners):

Extended Time: Student has until the end of the school day to complete a single test unit administered during the prescribed testing window. It is recommended to test students receiving the extended time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions to other students, and to schedule these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test unit by the end of the school day.

Florida

Accommodation:

Extended Time: A student may be provided extended time to complete a test session. Extended time must be provided in accordance with the student’s IEP or Section 504 Plan. Extended time is not unlimited time; it should align with the accommodation used regularly in the student’s classroom instruction and assessments. The student is not required to use all of the extended time that is allowed and may end the test session prior to the expiration of the extended time. Each test session must be completed within one school day.

Georgia

Accommodation:

Extended Time: Timed assessments usually require students to request a fairly specific amount of extra time; which in many cases should mirror the amount of extended time provided during day to day instruction and/or classroom assessments. A common extension, though not a mandated one, is time and one half. This means that for a test normally taking 60 minutes, a student may be allowed 90 minutes. Double time may also be allowed. Decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis, keeping in mind the type of accommodations being provided, the disability involved, and the type of test. For example, if a reader or scribe is used, double time may be appropriate. Specifying unlimited time is not appropriate or feasible. Assessment sessions may not cross over days and should be completed prior to the end of the school day.

Illinois

Accommodation (Students with Disabilities):

Extended Time: Students have until the end of the school day to complete a single test unit administered during the prescribed testing window. It is recommended to test students receiving the extended time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions to other students, and to schedule these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test unit by the end of the school day.

Accommodation (English Learners):

Students have until the end of the school day to complete a single test unit administered during the prescribed testing window. The amount of time a student receives must be indicated in advance. It is recommended to test students receiving the extended time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions to other students, and to schedule these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test unit by the end of the school day.

Indiana

Accommodation:

Extended Testing Time: Students are given extra/extended time to complete assessments with a time limit that is determined based on identified test time limits. TAs must utilize the guidance given in the IEP, ILP, Service Plan, Section 504 Plan, or CSEP. Unlimited time is not allowed. ILEARN and I AM tests are not timed. TAs must use their best professional judgment when allowing students extra time. Students should be actively engaged in responding productively to test questions.

Iowa

Universal Feature:

Extended Time: The ISASP is not a timed test. Testing is scheduled to take place at specified times during the school day. Students who are not able to complete the assessment during the scheduled time must be provided additional time during the testing window to complete the assessments.

Kentucky

Accommodation:

Extended time: Administration of extended time varies depending on the type of assessment being administered. Extended time is an honored accommodation for all state testing. Operational testing generally has stated firm time limits that can easily be given time and a half or double time. However, if students are working diligently, allow them to continue to work.

Louisiana

Accommodation:

Extended Time: Extended time is a provision that expands the allowable length of time to complete assignments, tests, and activities and may also change how the time is organized. For LEAP 20205, this accommodation provides additional time for a student to complete the summative assessments beyond the time allotted for the test. Students with disabilities and English learners may be eligible to receive the Extended Time Accommodation. The Extended Time Accommodation allows a student to have up to a single day to complete a single test session. Single test sessions may not extend beyond one school day.

Students who require this accommodation must take the test in a setting separate from those testing with standard time to minimize disruptions. If other selected accommodations affect the standard administration of the test (e.g., extended time on a timed test, tests read aloud), individual or small group (8 or less) administration must be used.

Maine

Designated Feature (Science):

Extended Time: Extended time is time beyond recommended/average of 60 minutes per session(s) 1, 2, and 3.

Maryland

Accommodation:

Extended Time: Timing accommodations are most helpful for students who need more time than generally allowed to complete activities, assignments, and tests. Extra time may be needed by a student to process written text (e.g., a student with a learning disability who processes information slowly), to write (e.g., a student with limited dexterity as a result of arthritis), or to use other accommodations or equipment (e.g., assistive technology, audio recorder, scribe).

Extended time may require a student’s IEP or 504 team to determine a fairly specific amount of extra time to complete assignments, projects, and tests. For example, a particular student may customarily receive time and one half. This means that a student is allowed 90 minutes to take a test that normally has a 60-minute limit.

Decisions regarding extended time must be made on a case-by-case basis, keeping in mind the type of accommodations being provided, the disability involved, and the type of assignments, tests, and activities. Usually “unlimited time” is not appropriate or feasible. Sometimes students who request extended time end up not needing it because of the reduction in anxiety just knowing that plenty of time is available. Students who have too much time may lose interest and motivation to do their best work.

Teachers and Test Administrators must make certain that the extended time accommodation is selected when other accommodations such as human reader, text-to-speech software, or scribe which may increase the time needed for the student to respond are chosen.

Minnesota

Universal Feature:

The MCA and MTAS are not timed. Students should be allowed to continue working on a test as long as they are making progress. Districts must have a plan in place for students who need extra time, as well as for students who complete their test and cannot be in the testing room on subsequent days.

Mississippi

Accommodation:

Extra Time: Cannot extended beyond the end of the instructional day.

Specify the extra amount of time using one of the following increments:

  1. The number of extra minutes,
  2. The number of extra hours, or
  3. The full instructional day.

New Jersey

Accommodation (Students with Disabilities):

Extended Time: Student’s SR/PNP must have extended time selected. The amount of time a student receives should be indicated in the student’s IEP or 504 plan. The student does not need to take the full day if it is not needed.

Students have until the end of the school day to complete a single test unit administered during the prescribed testing window. It is recommended to test students receiving the extended time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions to other students, and to schedule these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test unit by the end of the school day.

Accommodation (English Learners):

Extended Time: Student’s SR/PNP must have extended time selected.

Students have until the end of the school day to complete a single test unit administered during the prescribed testing window. The amount of time a student receives must be indicated in advance. It is recommended to test students receiving the extended time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions to other students, and to schedule these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test unit by the end of the school day.

North Carolina

Accommodation:

Scheduled Extended Time: The Scheduled Extended Time accommodation allows the tests to be finished during a scheduled extended period of time. Scheduled Extended Time may be an appropriate testing accommodation if the IEP team or Section 504 committee determines that, because of the nature of a student’s disability, the student will need additional time to complete the test beyond the time designated in the test administration guide. The IEP team or Section 504 committee determines how this accommodation will be provided and documents the specifics in the current IEP or Section 504 Plan before the test administration.

Ohio

Accommodation (Students with Disabilities):

Extended Time: Student is allowed more time than allotted for each test part.

In most cases, the Department recommends that extended time be defined for students and not open-ended. This accommodation is usually expressed as one and one-half time (1.5x) or double time (2x). A student who has one and one-half time on a test that normally takes 90 minutes may be allowed 135 minutes. Extended time may not exceed one school day; students must complete each test part on the same day that part is started.

Decisions about how much extended time is provided must be made on a case-by-case basis for each individual student, not for any category of students or group. Teams should keep in mind the purposes of different accommodations as they relate to disability characteristic or language barrier. Typically, if a student needs extended time, one and one-half time is sufficient. For some accommodations, such as use of a human reader or scribe, double time may be appropriate. Rarely is unlimited time (an entire school day) applicable.

Schools may choose to test students with the extended-time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions. The Department recommends scheduling these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test part by the end of the school day.

Accommodation (English Learners):

Extended Time: Extended time is appropriate for English learners of all English proficiency levels. With extended time, the student is allowed more time than allotted for each test part.

In most cases, the Department recommends that extended time be defined for students and not left open-ended. This accommodation is usually expressed as one and one-half time (1.5x) or double time (2x). A student who has one and one-half time on a test that normally takes 60 minutes may be allowed 90 minutes. Extended time may not exceed one school day; students must complete each test part on the same day that part is started.

Decisions about how much extended time is provided must be made on a case-by-case basis for each individual student, not for any category of students or group. Teams should keep in mind the purposes of different accommodations as they relate to disability characteristic or language barrier. Typically, if a student needs extended time, one and one-half time is sufficient. For some accommodations, such as an oral translation, double time may be appropriate. Rarely is unlimited time (an entire school day) applicable.

Schools may choose to test students with extended-time accommodations in a separate setting to minimize distractions. The Department recommends scheduling these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test part by the end of the school day.

Pennsylvania

Designated Feature:

Keystone and PSSA tests are untimed, therefore any student may be given additional time beyond the scheduled test session. Students must have sufficient time to complete a section prior to end of the school day. Students may not revisit a section of the test on subsequent days. Test sections must be administered in sequence. Students may request extended time beyond the regular test time as long as they are working productively. Mark “Extended time” bubble for students who require more time than the rest of the regular testing group and may need to move to the extended time area (or remain longer than other students in the testing area) to complete the test.

Since the Keystone and PSSA are untimed tests, decisions must be made prior to testing that take into consideration the student’s typical test-taking time requirements. For example, if the student typically remains with the regular test population during assessments, it might not be necessary to provide extended time beyond which the regular test population receives. However, it is imperative that each student’s profile is given close consideration when determining the amount of extended time required and to provide that student with extended time beyond the regular untimed test situation.

Rhode Island

Accessibility Feature (Universal Feature):

Extended Time: Testing times are to assist with planning. Allow students to continue testing as long as they are working productively.

South Carolina

Accommodation:

Extended Time: Students have until the end of the school day to complete a single test unit. Students should be tested in a separate setting to minimize distractions to other students and should be scheduled for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test by the end of the school day.

Tennessee

Accommodation:

Extended Time: Extended time is defined as up to double time and may not extend beyond one school day. Provides additional time for a student to complete the assessment beyond the time allotted for the test or subpart.

Utah

Extended Time: Not applicable for any student. This is not a timed assessment.

Vermont

Timing/Scheduling Accommodations: The Growth Assessments and SOL tests are untimed, but ample time should be allotted for all students to complete the test prior to the end of the scheduled school day. Some students, for example, may be unable to concentrate for a long period of time, have short attention spans, or have a disability that affects stamina. Establishing breaks or scheduling the test over two or more school days may be appropriate for these students.

Wyoming

Accommodation:

Extended Time: Students are able to pause assessments for more than 20 minutes and resume testing at a later time. WY-TOPP assessments are not timed but were developed to be completed in one sitting. If a student has extended time documented in an IEP, then the WY-TOPP assessment may be paused for more than 20 minutes. If the writing assessment is paused and resumed at a later time, then a Grace Period Extension appeal must be submitted through TIDE. Students who do not have extended time documented in an IEP may pause assessments for 20 minutes or less.

Attribution

All rights reserved. Any or all portions of this document may be reproduced and distributed without prior permission, provided the source is cited as:

  • Quanbeck, M., Holden, L., & Lazarus, S. S. (2023). Extended time: States’ accessibility policies, 2023 (NCEO Accommodations Toolkit #6b.1). National Center on Educational Outcomes.

NCEO is supported through a Cooperative Agreement (#H326G210002) with the Research to Practice Division, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. The Center is affiliated with the Institute on Community Integration at the College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota. Consistent with EDGAR §75.62, the contents of this report were developed under the Cooperative Agreement from the U.S. Department of Education, but do not necessarily represent the policy or opinions of the U.S. Department of Education or Offices within it. Readers should not assume endorsement by the federal government. Project Officer: David Egnor