Accommodations Toolkit

Extended Time: States' Accessibility Policies, 2020

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National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO)

This summary of states’ accessibility policies for extended time is part of the Accommodations Toolkit published by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO).[1]  The toolkit also contains a summary of the research literature on extended time.

Accessibility policies often have several tiers of accessibility features: universal features, designated features, and accommodations.[2]  Figure 1 summarizes how states included extended time in their accessibility policies for students with disabilities in 2020; Figure 2 provides similar information for English learners. Table 1 shows how extended time was included in the policies, while Table 2 contains additional details and specifications.

Figure 1. States’ Accessibility Policies for Extended Time for Students with Disabilities, 2020

Reading/ELA/Writing

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 21 States

Math

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 20 States

Science

  • Universal Features (U): 5 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 19 States

Figure 2. States’ Accessibility Policies for Extended Time for English Learners, 2020

Reading/ELA/Writing

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 8 States

Math

  • Universal Features (U): 4 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 8 States

Science

  • Universal Features (U): 5 States
  • Designated Features (D): 1 States
  • Accommodations (A): 7 States

Table 1. Accommodations Policies for Extended Time by State, 2020

U = Universal Feature, D = Designated Feature, A = Accommodation, ELA = English Language Arts, X = Allowed, SD = Allowed for Students with Disabilities, E = Allowed for English Learners, Blank cell = no policy found, N=Notes in Table 2

State

Reading/ELA/Writing

Math

Science

Notes

(See Table 2)

U

D

A

U

D

A

U

D

A

Alabama

SD

SD

SD

N

Alaska

SD

SD

SD

N

Arizona

Arkansas

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

California

Colorado

SD

SD

SD

N

Connecticut

Delaware

District of Columbia

SD, E

SD, E

N

Florida

SD

SD

SD

N

Georgia

SD

SD

SD

N

Hawaii

Idaho

X

X

X

N

Illinois

SD

SD

SD

N

Indiana

SD

N

Iowa

X

X

X

N

Kansas

X

X

X

N

Kentucky

SD

SD

SD

N

Louisiana

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Maine

Maryland

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Massachusetts

Michigan

X

X

X

N

Minnesota

N

Mississippi

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

N

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

SD

SD

SD

N

New Mexico

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

New York

SD

SD

SD

North Carolina

SD

SD

SD

N

North Dakota

Ohio

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

X

X

X

N

Rhode Island

X

N

South Carolina

SD

SD

SD

N

South Dakota

Tennessee

SD, E

SD, E

SD, E

N

Texas

SD

SD

SD

N

Utah

N

Vermont

Virginia

N

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Total (Students with Disabilities)

4

1

21

4

1

20

5

1

19

Total (English Learners)

4

1

8

4

1

8

5

1

7

Table 2. Details and Specifications: States’ Extended Time Accessibility Policies

State

Details/Specifications

Alabama

Student is allowed more time than allotted for each assessment. In most cases, the extended time is defined for students and not open-ended. This accommodation is usually expressed as one and one-half time (1.5) or double (2.0) or triple (3.0) the standard test time for an assessment as the maximum amount of time for a student to test. Students should be tested in a separate setting to minimize distractions and should be scheduled for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completing the assessment. Extended time may not extend beyond a school day; students must complete each test session on the same day the session is started. Decisions regarding how much time a student is provided must be made on a case-by-case basis for each individual student, not for any category of students or group. Typically, if a student needs extended time, one and one-half time is sufficient. For some accommodations, such as use of a human reader or scribe, double or triple time may be appropriate.

Alaska

Additional time:

Student may take additional time to complete assessments as needed beyond the time typically scheduled for all students.

Arkansas

Additional time to complete testing—one and one-half time, double time, two and one-half time, triple time, or quadruple time.

Colorado

Math and ELA:

Students with disabilities with appropriate documentation on IEP and 504 plans, and English learners taking assessments in English, may qualify for timing accommodations. Time-and-a-half is not included in math and ELA unit testing times.

Science:

Students with disabilities with appropriate documentation on IEP and 504 plans, and English learners taking assessments in English, may qualify for timing accommodations. Time-and-a-half is not included in math and ELA unit testing times.

District of Columbia

Student has until the end of the school day to complete a single test unit administered during the prescribed testing window. It is recommended to test students receiving the extended time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions to other students, and to schedule these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test unit by the end of the school day.

Florida

A student may be provided extended time to complete a test session. Extended time must be provided in accordance with the student’s IEP or Section 504 Plan. Extended time is not unlimited time; it should align with the accommodation used regularly in the student’s classroom instruction and assessments. The student is not required to use all of the extended time that is allowed and may end the test session prior to the expiration of the extended time. Each test session must be completed within one school day.

Georgia

Timed tests usually require students to request a fairly specific amount of extra time; which in many cases should mirror the amount of extended time provided during day to day instruction and/or classroom assessments. A common extension, though not a mandated one, is time and one half. This means that for a test normally taking 60 minutes, a student may be allowed 90 minutes. Double time may also be allowed. Decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis, keeping in mind the type of accommodations being provided, the disability involved, and the type of test. For example, if a reader or scribe is used, double time may be appropriate. Specifying unlimited time is not appropriate or feasible. Test sessions may not cross over days and should be completed prior to the end of the school day.

Idaho

Students should be allowed extra time if they need it, but TAs should use their best professional judgment when allowing students extra time. Students should be actively engaged in responding productively to test questions.

Illinois

Extended time is a provision which expands the allowable length of time to complete assignments, tests, and activities, and may also change the way the time is organized. For the Illinois Assessment of Readiness, this accommodation provides additional time for a student to complete the summative assessments beyond the time allotted for the test or test unit. Students with disabilities, students who are ELs, and students who are ELs with disabilities are eligible to receive the Extended Time Accommodation. The Extended Time Accommodation allows a student to have up to a single day to complete a single test unit. Single test units may not extend beyond one school day.

Indiana

Students are given extra/extended time to complete assessments with a time limit that is set based on identified testing times. The TA must utilize the guidance given in the IEP. Unlimited time is not allowed. Because ILEARN tests are not timed, TAs must use their best professional judgment when allowing students extra time. Students should be actively engaged in responding productively to test questions.

Iowa

The ISASP is not a timed test. Testing is scheduled to take place at specified times during the school day. Students who are not able to complete the assessment during the scheduled time must be provided additional time during the testing window to complete the assessments.

Kansas

The Kansas assessments are untimed. Students should be given as much time as necessary to complete each test session.

Kentucky

Extended time, for students with a current IEP, 504 Plan or PSP, shall be available to the student once standard test time has ended. Extended time will be given if the student is demonstrating on-task efforts which allow the student to make progress on completing his/her assessment responses. The school shall provide proper supervision to maintain an appropriate assessment atmosphere.

Louisiana

Extended time is a provision that expands the allowable length of time to complete assignments, tests, and activities and may also change how the time is organized. For LEAP 20205, this accommodation provides additional time for a student to complete the summative assessments beyond the time allotted for the test. Students with disabilities and English learners may be eligible to receive the Extended Time Accommodation. The Extended Time Accommodation allows a student to have up to a single day to complete a single test session. Single test sessions may not extend beyond one school day.

Maryland

Timing accommodations are most helpful for students who need more time than generally allowed to complete activities, assignments, and tests. Extra time may be needed by a student to process written text (e.g., a student with a learning disability who processes information slowly), to write (e.g., a student with limited dexterity as a result of arthritis), or to use other accommodations or equipment (e.g., assistive technology, audio recorder, scribe). Extended time may require a student’s IEP or 504 team to determine a fairly specific amount of extra time to complete assignments, projects, and tests. For example, a particular student may customarily receive time and one half. This means that a student is allowed 90 minutes to take a test that normally has a 60-minute limit. Decisions regarding extended time must be made on a case-by-case basis, keeping in mind the type of accommodations being provided, the disability involved, and the type of assignments, tests, and activities. Usually “unlimited time” is not appropriate or feasible. Sometimes students who request extended time end up not needing it because of the reduction in anxiety just knowing that plenty of time is available. Students who have too much time may lose interest and motivation to do their best work. Teachers and Test Administrators must make certain that the extended time accommodation is selected when other accommodations such as human reader, text-to-speech software, or scribe which may increase the time needed for the student to respond are chosen.

Extended time is used for each session/part of an administered test. The extended time accommodation must be given in one continuous block of time. The student with extended time cannot be told to close the book at the end of the standard session testing time and then be brought back to that session at a later time to complete the extended time accommodation. Special attention must be considered when arranging testing groups to ensure that students without the extended time accommodation do not receive more than the specified testing time stated in the Test Administrator Manual for each assessment. Test Administrators may not extend a single session/part of a test over multiple days. If a student is unable to complete multiple test sessions/parts in one day due to the amount of extended time required, then the multiple day accommodation may be appropriate for the student. (Multiple Days are now covered under Unique Accommodation) Each student’s IEP or 504 Plan must document the amount of extended time typically required for assessments. IEP or 504 Teams should determine the routine for providing extended time to students. If a student’s IEP or 504 Plan does not specify the amount of extended time given to a student during an assessment, then the Test Administrator should work with the school test coordinator to ensure that parameters are established ahead of testing. For example, once the student closes the test book, this is the Test Administrator’s cue that the student has completed the session. When administering the extended time during assessments, it is imperative for the school test coordinator to carefully plan ahead of time in order to be prepared to administer the assessment.

Michigan

General test administration practice.

Minnesota

The MCA and MTAS are not timed, so students should be allowed to continue working on a test as long as they are making progress. Districts must have a plan in place for students who need extra time, as well as for students who finish testing and cannot be in the testing room on subsequent days.

Mississippi

Students who are regularly given extended time on classroom activities, classroom assignments, and classroom tests may qualify for a specified amount of extended or additional time on selected state assessments. Extended or additional time varies depending on the particular state assessment. Decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis, keeping in mind all the accommodations being provided and the nature of the assessment. For example, if a read-aloud accommodation or scribe is being used, extended time may not be necessary.

Nebraska

Although state content tests aren’t timed, providing extended time is recommended for English learners of all proficiency levels.

New Jersey

Students may be allowed an extended time accommodation beyond the unit testing time up to the end of the school day to complete a unit only if this accommodation is listed in their IEP or 504 plan, or ELL plan, if used. It is highly recommended these students be scheduled to test in a separate setting. A student may be on a different testing schedule from other students because of this accommodation, as long as testing is completed within the testing window (in addition, each unit must be completed on the day on which it begins).

North Carolina

The North Carolina Testing Program requires all students be allowed ample time to complete the assessments. If a student typically requires more time than other students to complete classroom assignments and assessments, the IEP team or Section 504 committee may want to address Scheduled Extended Time as a possible testing accommodation. Students who are provided the Scheduled Extended Time accommodation may not begin the test administration sooner than the school’s scheduled start for the regular test administration.

Ohio

Students with disabilities:

Student is allowed more time than allotted for each test part. In most cases, the Department recommends that extended time be defined for students and not open-ended. This accommodation is usually expressed as one and a one-half time (1.5x) or double time (2x). A student who has one and one-half time on a test that normally takes 90 minutes may be allowed 135 minutes. Extended time may not exceed one school day; students must complete each test part on the same day that part is started. Decisions about how much extended time is provided must be made on a case-by-case basis for each individual student, not for any category of students or group. Teams should keep in mind the purposes of different accommodations as they relate to disability characteristic or language barrier. Typically, if a student needs extended time, one and one-half time is sufficient. For some accommodations, such as use of a human reader or scribe, double time may be appropriate. Rarely is unlimited time (an entire school day) applicable. Schools may choose to test students with the extended-time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions. The Department recommends scheduling these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test part by the end of the school day.

English learners:

Student is allowed more time than allotted for each test part. In most cases, the Department recommends that extended time be defined for students and not open-ended. This accommodation is usually expressed as one and a one-half time (1.5x) or double time (2x). A student who has one and one-half time on a test that normally takes 60 minutes may be allowed 90. Extended time may not exceed one school day; students must complete each test part on the same day that part is started. Decisions about how much extended time is provided must be made on a case-by-case basis for each individual student, not for any category of students or group. Teams should keep in mind the purposes of different accommodations as they relate to disability characteristic or language barrier. Typically, if a student needs extended time, one and one-half time is sufficient. For some accommodations, such as an oral translation, double time may be appropriate. Rarely is unlimited time (an entire school day) applicable. Schools may choose to test students with the extended-time accommodation in a separate setting to minimize distractions. The department recommends scheduling these students for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test part by the end of the school day. Appropriate for all English language proficiency levels.

Pennsylvania

Keystone and PSSA tests are untimed, therefore any student may be given additional time beyond the scheduled test session. Students must have sufficient time to complete a section prior to end of the school day. Students may not revisit a section of the test on subsequent days. Test sections must be administered in sequence. Students may request extended time beyond the regular test time as long as they are working productively. Mark “Extended time” bubble for students who require more time than the rest of the regular testing group and may need to move to the extended time area (or remain longer than other students in the testing area) to complete the test.

Since the Keystone and PSSA are untimed tests, decisions must be made prior to testing that take into consideration the student’s typical test-taking time requirements. For example, if the student typically remains with the regular test population during assessments, it might not be necessary to provide extended time beyond which the regular test population receives. However, it is imperative that each student’s profile is given close consideration when determining the amount of extended time required and to provide that student with extended time beyond the regular untimed test situation.

Rhode Island

Extended Time. Testing times are to assist with planning. Students should be allowed to continue testing as long as they are working productively.

South Carolina

Students have until the end of the school day to complete a single test unit. Students should be tested in a separate setting to minimize distractions to other students and should be scheduled for testing in the morning to allow adequate time for completion of a test by the end of the school day.

Tennessee

Extended time is defined as up to double time and may not extend beyond one school day. Provides additional time for a student to complete the assessment beyond the time allotted for the test or subpart.

Texas

This designated support allows a student to have extra time until the end of the regularly scheduled school day to complete a state assessment.

Utah

RISE: Not applicable for any student. This is not a timed assessment.

Virginia

Since the SOL tests are untimed, considerable flexibility can be provided to ensure that ample time is scheduled and allotted for test completion.

Attribution

All rights reserved. Any or all portions of this document may be reproduced and distributed without prior permission, provided the source is cited as:

  • Lazarus, S. S., Quanbeck, M., & Goldstone, L. (2021). Extended Time: States’ accessibility policies, 2020 (NCEO Accommodations Toolkit #6b). National Center on Educational Outcomes.

NCEO is supported through a Cooperative Agreement (#H326G160001) with the Research to Practice Division, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. The Center is affiliated with the Institute on Community Integration at the College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota. NCEO does not endorse any of the commercial products used in the studies. The contents of this report were developed under the Cooperative Agreement from the U.S. Department of Education, but does not necessarily represent the policy or opinions of the U.S. Department of Education or Offices within it. Readers should not assume endorsement by the federal government. Project Officer: David Egnor